Ms – WORD
FILE MENU: -
In word to create a file first we have to select the file option from menu bar. By selecting New it displays the new dialog box. In that select type of doc you want to create (letter, menu, . . .. etc.,). And finally click on OK button.
By clicking this option we can open already existing file.
By selecting this option it displays open dialog box. Type the file name at file name box. To change the directory select the folder from look in box and press open button (or) enter key.
By selecting this option it displays open dialog box. Type the file name at file name box. To change the directory select the folder from look in box and press open button (or) enter key.
The file must be saved to store in the computer (or) to open, for later use. To save the file, click on save option. If you are saving 1st time we have to enter the file name. In the save dialog box type the file name at file name box and select the folder to save in a particular folder. We can also give password to file by clicking options tab in the dialog box.
Save As: -
By clicking this option we can give different file name (or) file format. We can also give password by clicking option tab, so that others cannot change its contents.
Page Setup: -
By clicking this option we can set the margins, paper size, paper source & other layout options for the doc. i.e., we can set top, bottom, left, right margins & paper height (vertical (or) horizontal) …. etc.
Print Preview shows how a file will look when you print it. By clicking print preview, toolbar will be displayed. In that by clicking magnifier option we can make changes to document.
By clicking this options prints the contents of the doc (or) selected items. By clicking print option, dialog box will be displayed. In that select printer name, paper range (all pages (or) current (or) selection) and no. of copies and finally click on OK button.
By clicking this option displays the properties of the document. Properties include size, author, statistical and other information about the doc.
By clicking this option closes the active doc without exiting the word application. If the file contains unsaved information, you will be prompted to save the file before closing.
Send To: -
By clicking this option we can send the active file to
Mail Recipient: - Sends an active file as an attachment to a mail message.
Exchange folder: - Sends an active file to the exchange folder you specify.
Fox Recipient: - Sends the act file as a fax.
By clicking this option closes the word application after prompting you to save any unsaved files.
EDIT MENU: -
This option reverses the last action. To reverse mare than once click it again and again until the command changes to can’t undo. (i.e., we cannot reverse the last action).
This option repeats your last command or action. This command changes to can’t repeat if it cannot repeat the last action.
This command removes the selected text or object from the doc and places it on the clipboard. This can also be activated by clicking cut button in the std. tool bar.
This command copies the selected text or object to the clipboard. This can also be activated by clicking copy button in the Std. Toolbar.
This command inserts the contents of the clipboard at the insertion point, and replaces any selection. This option is active only when the clip board contains text or object. This option can also be activated by clicking paste button in the std. Toolbar.
Paste Special: -
This command pastes, links or embeds the clipboard contents in the format you specify i.e., from the available formats.
This command deletes the selected text or object without placing it on the clipboard. This command is available only if an object (or) text is selected.
Select All: -
This command selects all text and objects in the active doc.
This command searches for specified text, formats, symbols, comments, footnotes (or) end notes in the active document. By clicking this option Find & Replace window will be displaced. In the find what box, type the information to search and click on find next button then the information will be searched.
This command searches for and replaces specified text, format, footnotes, endnotes or comment makes in the active doc. By clicking this Find & Replace window will be displayed. In the find what box type the inform to search and in the replace with box type the informated to be replaced. Click Replace button to replace once (or) click replace all button to replaces all the text.
This option moves the insertion point to the wanted item i.e., you can move the insertion point to a page no., comment, footnote, bookmark or other location.
This command will be activated when these is a link between Ms-Word document and any other application. This option can be used to remove the links permanently (or) lock the link temporarily. By using this we can also change the source of the link.
VIEW MENU: -
Normal View: -
By clicking this option the document is switched to normal view. This is the default document view. In this view we cannot insert header, footer, page no. foot notes. This view provides the easiest view of the text and other elements on the screen.
Online Layout View: -
By clicking this option the document is switched to online layout view. This view is used for creating and reading online documents. In this view the document is divided into two parts i.e., left pane and right pane. Left map or doc map displays the structure of the document (its heading) and right pane displays the text at on easily readable size.
Page Layout View: -
By clicking this option the document is switched to page layout view. This view is useful for getting rough idea of how your doc will look when you print them. This view takes more sys memory, so scrolling may be slower, especially doc contains pictures. In this view the documents will be displayed with all page settings, header, footer, pictures . .. etc.,
Outline View: -
By clicking this option the doc is switched to outline view. The document will be displayed with no. of heading levels. This is more complex than other view. This view is useful for structuring long documents.
Master Doc View: -
By clicking this option the doc is switched to master doc view. This option is used to switch back and forth b/w outline and master doc view. In this view doc is divided into various sub documents. We can insert, create (or) delete sub documents. The sub documents will be displayed in separate normal view.
Full – Screen: -
By clicking this option the doc is switched to Full – Screen View. This option is used to display the documents in Full – Screen mode. In this case it hides application window. By clicking close full screen option, it switch backs to previous view.
This option is used to control the size of the doc. it does not change the size of the document instead it changes the size of the appearance. We can zoom the doc to 100%, 75%, 200% . . . etc.,
Tool Bars: -
By clicking this option displays list of tool bars. This option is used to display or hide toolbars. To display a particular toolbar, select the checkbox next to the toolbar name. To hide a tool bar, clear the checkbox.
Header & Footer: -
By clicking this option we can place word’s header & footer information in the doc’s top & bottom margins. Header prints the information top & footer is bottom. We can give same header & footer in all the pages of the doc (or) the user can specify different header & footer for each page. Using header & footer toolbar we can insert page no, date, time, page setup … etc.,
Document Map: -
This option turns on or off the doc map. It is a vertical plane along the left edge of the doc window that outlines the doc structure. Using doc map we can read online doc very fast and keep track of the cursor location in it.
This option is used to display (or) hide the horizontal ruler. Using this the user can position objects, change paragraph indents, page margins and other settings.
INSERT MENU: -
This option is used to insert a page break, column break (or) section break at the insertion point i.e., some part of the infer will be shifted to the next page from the insertion point.
Page numbers: -
This option is used to insert page no’s, that are automatically updated when pages are deleted (or) added. We can insert page no’s on the top (or) bottom of the page. We can also specify alignment of the page no’s i.e., (left, center (or) right)
Date & Time: -
This option inserts the date & time in the specified format at the insertion point in the doc. if the check box is checked in the dialog box, the date & time will be updated automatically.
Auto Text: -
This option is used to insert on Auto Text entry. We can insert an auto text entry from the available list.
Ex: - Best regards, Best Wishes, Signature, Salutation. . . etc.,
This option is used to insert symbols (or) special characters at insertion point in the document. We can insert symbols (or) special characters from the available list. We can also give shortcut key to the symbol to insert in the document.
This option is used to insert comments at the insertion point in the document. Comments are used to provide useful information to the user about the document. To see the comments place the cursor on to the word where comment has been inserted.
Foot Note: -
This option is used to insert a footnote. It is used to explain difficult words in the document. We can also insert an endnote, which appears at the end of the document.
This option is used to insert different types of pictures in the document. We can insert pictures from clipart gallery, and from file. We can also insert Auto Shapes, Word Art and chart in the document.
Text Box: -
This option is used to draw the text box, where you drag in the active window. We can add text in the box.
This option inserts all or part of the selected files into the active document at the insertion point.
This option is used to insert objects such as Bitmap image, Microsoft Excel Chart, Microsoft Excel Sheet, PowerPoint Slide, Clipart … etc., at the insertion point.
Book Marks: -
This option is used to create bookmarks that can be used to mark selected text, graphics, tables (or) other items.
FORMAT MENU: -
This option is sued to change the font (Character), character spacing and animation (only for display not for printing) around the selected text. In the font dilog box we can select font style, size, color, font name … etc. By clicking character spacing tab we can expand or condense the spacing between characters. By clicking animation tab, we can give animations to the selected text.
This option is used to change paragraph indents, text alignments, line spacing and other paragraph formats in the selected paragraph.
Alignment: - Aligns the selected paragraph to right/left/ center/justified alignment.
Indentation: - It sets the selected paragraph to move left/right side.
Spacing: - sets the space before/after for the selected paragraph.
Bullets & Numbering: -
This option is used to add bullets (or) no’s to the selected paragraph.
Borders & Shadings: -
This option is used to add borders and shadings to selected text, paragraphs, pages, table cell (or) pictures.
This option is used to display the document or selected text in specified no of columns (1, 2, 3, left & right)
This option is used to set the position and alignment of tab stops and also determines the type of leader character for each tab stop. In the displayed dialog box type the measurement for a new tab stop for it. Leader is used to fill empty space at the left of the tab stop.
Drop Cap: -
Drop Cap formats a letter, word (or) selected text with a large initial or “dropped” capital letter. A drop cap is traditionally the first letter in the paragraph and it can appear either in the left margin or dropped from the baseline of the 1st line in the paragraph.
Text Direction: -
This option is used to rotate the selected text in table cells. The user can display the text horizontally, vertically or by rotating upto the specified degree.
Change Case: -
This option is used to change the case of if we click on sentence case, it capitalizes the 1st letter of each sentence, it we click on lower case, changes selected text to lower case, of we click on upper case, changes selected text to upper case, if we click on title case, it capitalizes the 1st letter of each word, if we click on toggle case, it changes upper case letters to lower case advice versa.
Auto Format: -
This option analyzes the contents of the active document and then automatically formats the document. In the displayed dialog box if we click on “Auto Format Now” formats the current doc without prompting you to accept or reject each change. If we click on “Auto format and review each change”, formats the current doc and prompts the user to acceptor reject each change.
Style Gallery: -
This option is used to customize the appearance of the doc by using styles from other templates. In the displayed dialog box contains various styles from different templates. The user can select a style from the list and he can see the preview of the doc in that style. we can also create new or modify existing styles.
This option is used to give background color you want. Then the page layout changes to online layout.
This option is used to format the line, color, fill and pattern, size, position and other properties of the selected object.
TABLE MENU: -
Draw Table: -
By clicking this option we can draw the table on the document by holding left mouse button.
Insert Table: -
By clicking this option inserts the table in the active document with the no. of rows and columns you specify.
Insert Rows: -
This option is used to insert rows in the table. By clicking this option inserts row at the insertion point in the table by shifting the current rows towards down.
Insert Columns: -
This option is used to insert column in the table. By clicking this option inserts column at the insertion point in the table by shifting the current column towards right.
Delete Cells / Rows / Columns: -
By clicking this option deletes the selected cells or entire row (or) column that contains the insertion point.
Select Row / Column / Table: -
By clicking this option selects the row or column or table that contains the insertion point.
Merge Cells: -
By clicking this option we can merge (combine) two or more cells into single cell in the table.
Split Cells: -
By clicking this option we can split (divide) one cell into no. of cells i.e., splits the cell into no. of rows & columns you entered.
Auto Format: -
By clicking this option we can apply various formats for tables. When this option is clicked, displays various formats we can select any one of the style for the table.
Distribute Rows Evenly: - By clicking this option changes the selected rows or cells to equal row height.
Distribute Columns Evenly: - By clicking this option changes the selected columns or cells to equal column width.
Cell Height & Width: - By clicking this option adjusts the height, width and alignment of row & column in a table.
Convert Text to Table / Table to Text: - By clicking this option converts the selected text to table (or) converts the selected table to text. Text you converts to a table must include separator characters such as commas (or) tab characters.
Sort: - This option is used to sort the table contents in ascending (or) descending order. Before clicking sort option, the user has to select the table contents.
Formula: - This option is used to perform mathematical calculations on numbers. First we have to select row/column and use the calculation what we have to do.
Split Table: - This option is used to divide table into two separate tables and inserts a paragraph marks as we the row that contains the insertion point.
Templates: - A template is a special type of file that you use as a basis for producing similar files.
A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as Auto Text entries, fonts, toolbars, special formatting & styles. Word provides variety of document templates. We can also create our own templates. Any template can contain its own.
· Style ® for formatting text
· Auto text entries ® for inserting text and other elements quickly
· Toolbars ® for quick access to the commands you need.
· Macro modules ® for performing repetitive actions
To create Template: -
· Click on “new” option from the file menu
· Select template in he create new group box
· Select from general, letters & faxes, memos … etc., and click on OK button in the new dialog box.
· We can also see the preview of the template on the right side of the new dialog box.
· We can choose between three views of the templates available by clicking on one of the three buttons above the preview box.
· Left button give the large icon view, 2nd gives the list view & 3rd gives the detail view.
· After clicking OK button, the document will be opened, we can replace the existing text by our own text.
· After modification save the file by clicking save option and click the file. Hence template is created.
Explain how to sort the table elements?
· Draw the table in the document by clicking insert table (or) draw table option.
· After inserting the table in the document enter the values (or) text into the table using keyboard.
· After entering the values (or) text select the table by clicking “select table” option (or) drag with left mouse button by pressing it.
· Click on “Sort” option from the table menu.
· In the displayed dialog box select Ascending (or) descending option and clock on OK button.
· The table elements will be sorted ascending to our specifications.
Explain how to create a Document?( or ) Steps in Designing a Document?
· Run the Ms-Word application by clicking start button on taskbar and programs
· Then two windows will be displayed on the screen [app window, doc window]
· Click file menu on menu bar and select “New” option. Then “New” dialog box will be displayed on the screen.
· In the dialog box click on doc (or) template and select the type of doc you want to create (general, letter, memo . . . . etc.)
· Then type the text on the doc window and format the doc using other menu options i.e., EDIT, VIEW, INSERT, FORMAT, TABLE if necessary and click “Save” option from the file menu. If you are saving 1st time we have to type file name.
· After finishing the typing now the doc is ready and finally close the file by clicking close option from the file menu.
Define Macro. Explain how to create & run the Macro?
A Macro is a set of actions of commands that can be repeated in the document.
A Macro is a sequence of commands that you can assign to a single key, toolbar button or menu item and then repeat at will. To create & run the macro. The following steps.
To create the macro.
· On the tools menu, point to macro, and click ‘Record new macro’.
· In the macro name box, type a name for the macro.
· If you don’t want assign the macro to a tool bar, a menu, create shortcut keys click OK to begin recording the macro.
· To assign the macro to a tool bar (or) menu, click toolbars. In the ‘commands’ box, click the macro you are reading, cool drag it to the tool bar (or) menu you want to assign it to click ‘close’ to begin recording the macro.
· To assign the macro to shortcut keys, click ‘keyboard’. In the ‘command’ box, click the macro you are readily. In the ‘press new shortcut key’ box type the key sequence and click ‘Assign’ button. Click ‘close’ to begin recording the macro.
· Perform the actions you want to include in your macro.
· To stop reading your macro, click stop recording.
To Run the Macro: -
· On the tools menu, point to macro, and then click macros.
· In the ‘macro name’ box, click the name of the macro you want to run.
· If the macro does not appear in the list, select a different document, template, or list in the ‘macro in’ box.
· Click Run.
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There is a situation like, you are asked to mail a sample letter to more than one person. This may be possible by typing letters to each individual with different addresses. But, number increases (Ex. Goes into hundred) it becomes difficult to type. The solution to all these problems is mail merge.
Word has a feature called “Mailmerge”, using this we can create a form letter and merge it with the mailing list. Other common mail merge documents include
· Form Letters
· Mailing labels
To merge the documents use the following steps.
1. Creating the mail document
2. Specifying the data source.
3. Merging the data.
1) Creating the mail document: -
Main document is the file that contains the text and variable
information (merge fields) that receive information from the data file. A data file is a word table that contains information about the recipients of the form letters. To create the main document do the following steps.
· Open the main document for merge and make it active window.
· Choose tools à mail merge option to start the merging process. Then word displays the mail merge helper dialog box.
· In the dialog box click on “create “ button and choose the type of document for merging (form letters, labels, envelops or catalogs)
· A message box appears asking the user whether to use “active window” or “create new document”.
· If you click on “active document”, the name and path is displayed under the create button.
· If you click on “create new document”, word opens a new document and name and path is displayed under the create button.
2) Specifying the data source:
Click the “get data” button in the mail merge hepler dialog box and choose any one
of the option from the drop down list.
Create data source:
This option will create a new mail merge data source.
Open data source:
This option opens an existing mail merge data source.
This option opens an existing mail merge data source from addres book.
To create the new data source do the following steps.
1. Click on getdata and choose “create data source” from the drop down list.
2. Word displays the create data source dialog box.
3. Select the fields from header row or type the name of the field in the name box then click on “add field name” button.
4. To remove a field name from the header list, select the field name and clik on “remove field name” button.
5. After selecting all the fields, click on ok button.
6. Now, word will display the “save as” dialog box for saving the fields in the document.
7. Once the document is saved, a message box is displayed, telling that the document contains no data.
8. Choose the edit source button for entering the data. Then it displays the data form box.
9. Type the data in the data form and click on “add new” button for entering the next record.
10. After entering the all records click on ok button.
11. After entering the data in the data form, insert the merge fields in the document by clicking “insert merge field” option from the mailmerge tool bar.
12. In the displayed list, select the field name and clikt it. The selected field will be inserted at the specified position.
3) Merging the data:
· To merge the fields in the document select Tools à mail merge option from the menu.
· In the dialog box specify the no. of records to be merged. That is all records or some records.
· Specify the destination for the merged records. That is transferred to new document or printer or e-mail.
· Finally click on merge option. Then all the records will be merged.
1 and 2 steps are same as above.
3). Merging the data:
· Select Tools à mail merge option from the menu.
· Click on “setup” button before merging.
· In the displayed dialog box select the size of the label from the list and click ok button.
· In the next dialog box insert the merge fields in the sample dialog box and click ok button.
· Finally click on merge option and specify no. of records to be merged(all or some) and click merge button.
· The labels will be printed on the document.
I and II steps are same as above.
III . Merging the data:
· Before merging the fields, click on “setup” button and select the size of the envelop from the drop down list and click ok button.
· Insert the merge fields in the sample box area and click od button.
· Finally click on merge option and select the number of records to be merged(all or some).
· Then the records will be merged.
I and II steps are same as above.
III . Merging the data:
· After inserting jthe merge fields in the document
select Tools merge option from the menu.
· Then all the records will be merged. That is displays all the records one by one in the document.
Different views of the slide:
MS Power Point comes with different views while creating a presentation. There are mainly two views.
Normal View: Normal view contains mainly 3 panes.
· Outline Pane:
Using this pane we can organize and develop the content of your presentation. You
can type all of your text of your presentation and rearrange bullet points, paragraphs
· Slide pane:
In the slide pane you can see how your text looks on each slide. You can add
graphics, movies and sounds. We can also add animations to individual slides.
· Notes pane:
he notes pane lets you add your presentation or information you want to share
with the audience.
Slide sorter view:
In the slide sorter view you see all the slides in your presentation on screen at a time. This makes it easy to add, delete and move slides and select animated transitions for moving from slide to slide. You can also preview animations on multiple slides by selecting the slides you want to preview and then clicking animation preview on the slide show menu.
Explain how to run the slide:
After creating the slide do the following steps to run the slide.
4. Slide transition:
· In the slide or slide sorter view select the slide or slides you want to add a
· On the slide show menu click slide transition.
· Then the slide transition dialog box is displayed.
· Select the transition from the drop down list.
· Select any other options you want to include in your slide.
· Click “Aplly” or “Apply All” button.
5. Custom animation:
· Select the text or image you want to apply the custom effect.
· Select slide show, custom animation from the menu bar.
· Then it opens custom animation dialog box.
· Select the timing tab to select animate and assign timing.
· Select effects tab to select required effect.
6. Setup show:
· Setup show dialog box controls the way a slide show will run.
· Click setup show from the slide menu.
· Change the show type, i.e.
--- presented by a speaker
--- Browsed by an individual
--- Browsed at a kiosk
· And click the check box, if you want to the presentation to keep repeating until “Esc”
is pressed. When presentation reaches to the last slide, it will loop back to the 1st slide.
· Finally click OK to accpet changes.
After finishing the above 3 steps click slide show, view show to the run the slide.
Explain how to create and run the macro in power point.
· Click tools, goto macro and click on “Record New Macro”.
· In the displayed dialog box type the name for the macro in the name box and click ok button.
· Do the set of action in the slide.
· Click tools, goto macro and click on “Stop Recording”.
· To run the macro, again goto tools, macro and click on “macros”.
· Select the macro name from the dialog box and click “Run”.
INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS
Operating system is a set of programs (or) Software that is used to control all the comp. Resources.
01. Explain Functionality of O.S?
Functions of O.S: - The main function of O.S is to provide working environment to the user by providing all the necessary comp. resources to the user.
There are mainly four types
Memory Management: - Allocate the memory to the program and reclaim after finishing the job.
Process Management: - Keep track of processor and status of the program
I/O Management: - Allocate I/O and her resources.
Information Management: - Keep track of inf and its location.
MS – Dos: - A disk is used in comp. memory as a main part of the storage space & that is controls by providing appropriate commands is called DOS. Whenever the system is booted the following 3 files will be loaded automatically into RAM with OS.
2. Ms Dos.sys
Command . Com: - It is a file related to commands (int.commands)
Ms-Dos.sys: - Ms-Dos.sys file is used to display the command prompt (C:\>) on the screen.
I/O.Sys: - I/O.sys is file used to manage I/O devices.
MS - OFFICE
· MS-OFFICE is developed by US-based company called Micro-Soft.
· Ms is a collection of programs & files that all work together.
· Ms-Office version includes mainly three applications.
1) Ms-Word, 2) Ms-Power Point, 3) Ms-Excel
· But professional version includes Ms-Access.
· One of the major element involved in office automation is to get letters, documents in very little time with no errors.
Note: - Typing something in blank space or blank window and saving it into the disk is called document.
· Those days they were used typewriter as a main machine to solve the office problem.
· Typewriter had many drawbacks.
Ex: - Once the text is typed
We cannot delete, we cannot insert, we cannot copy the text…. etc.
· As we know revolution of the comps. brought us a dramatic change in working environment.
· There are many software packages for word processing.
Some of them words in “DOS”.
Word Star, Word Perfect, Professional Write
· But working in windows operating system is very easy. Hence Ms-Word part of Ms-Office which works under windows.
MS – PowerPoint
The main purpose of Power Point is to create slides for giving presentation about the business organization.
Slide: - A slide is a single page of presentation but presentation may include more than one slide is called slides.
Using power point we can create
Slide is nothing but a single page of your presentation about the business organization presentation will be made-up of many pages.
Ex: - Let us consider a book to be give presentation then each page is slide.
Overhead Transparencies: - We can create black & white overhead transparencies, colour –over-head-taranspancies, 35mm slides, video slide – show with complete special effects.
Handouts: - Handouts is nothing but paper copies of slides that is given to the avoidance,
Speaker’s Notes: - At the time of presentation speaker uses the notes. They are usually printed papers.
POWER – POINT
Explain how to run the Slide?
· After creating the slide do the following steps to run the slide.
Slide Transition: -
· In slide or slide sorter view select the slide or slides you want to add a transition.
· On the slide show menu click on “Slide Transition.
· Then the slide transition dialog box will be displayed.
· Select the transition from the drop down list I the dialog box.
· Select any other opts in the dialog box you want to include in your slide.
· Click “Apply” or “Apply All” button in the dialog box.
Custom Animation: -
· Select the text or image you want to apply the custom effect
· Select slide show à custom animation from menubar.
· Then it opens “Custom Animation” dialog box.
· Select the timing tab, to select animation and assign timing
· Select effects tab, to select required effect.
Setup Show: -
· Setup show dialog box controls the way a slide show will run.
· Click “Setup Show” from “Slide Show” menu
· Choose the show type, i.e.,
1. Presented by a speaker
2. Browsed by an individual
3. Browsed at a kiosk
· Click the “Check Box”, if you want to the presentation to keep repeating until “Esc” key is pressed.
· When presentation reaches the last slides it will loop back to the first slide.
· After finishing the above three steps click slide show à view show. To run the slide.
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Explain Different Views of the Slide?
Ms-PowerPoint comes with different views while creating a presentation.
There are mainly two views.
1. Normal View 2. Slide Sorter View.
Normal View: - This view contains mainly three panes.
1) Outline Pane: -
· Using this pane begin organize and develop the contain of your presentation.
· You can type all of the text of your presentation and re-organize bullet points, paragraphs & slides.
2) Slide Pane: -
· In the slide pane you can see how your text looks on each slide.
· You can add graphics, movies and sounds.
· We can also add animations, to individual slides.
3) Notes Pane: -
· The notes pane lets you add your speaker’s notes on inf. You want to share with the audience.
Slide Sorter View: -
· In the slide sorter view, you can see all the slides in your presentation at a time.
· This makes it is easy to add, delete and move slides and selected animation transitions from moving slide to slide.
· We can also preview animation on multiple slides by selecting the slides you want to preview, and then clicking animation preview on the “Slide Show” menu.
Explain how to create & run the Macro?
· Select tools and goto macro and click on “record new macro”
· In the display dialog box type the name for the macro in the “name box” and click ‘OK’.
· Do the set of actions in the slide.
· Goto tools and macro and click on “stop recording”.
· To run the macro select tools à Macro and clock on Macros.
· Select the given “Macro Name from the dialog box and click ‘run’.
MS – EXCEL
Explain how to create the Chart in Excel?
· We can create and embedded chart or a chart sheet.
· Select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart.
· If you want the column/row labels to appear in the chart include the cells that contain then in the selection.
· Click the chart wizard from toolbar or from Insert Menu.
· Follow the chart instructions in the chart wizard.
Modifying the Chart: -
· Click the chart you want to change.
· On the chart menu, click source data and then click data range tab.
· Make sure that the entire reference in the data range box is selected.
· On the work sheet, select the cells that contain the data you want to appear in the chart.
· If you want column/row labels appear in the chart select that also.
Explain different types of Charts: -
· Column chart
· Bar chart.
· Line chart
· Pie chart
· XY (Scattery) chart
· Area chart
· Bubble chart
· Radar chart
· Doughnut chart
· Cone, cylinder, pyramid charts.
Colon Chart: -
· A colon chart shows data changes over a period of time (or) shows the comparisons among items.
· Categories are organize horizontally, values vertically.
Note: - Stacked Colon chart shows the relation ship of individual items to the whole.
Bar – Chart: -
· A bar – chart explains comparisons among individual items
· Categories are organize vertically, values horizontally
Note: - Stocked bar – chart show the relationship of individual items to the whole.
Line - Chart: -
· A line chart shows trends in data at in equal intervals
Pie – Chart: -
· A Pie chart shows the proportional size of items that make up a data series to the sum of the items.
· It always shows only one data series and is usually when you want to analyze a significant element.
XY – Chart (Scatter): -
· An XY-chart either shows the relationship among the numeric values in several data series or two groups of no’s as one series of XY-co.ord.
· It shows un even interval or clusters of data.
· When you arrange the data place XY-value in one row and enter corresponding Y value in the adjacent rows/colors.
Area – Chart: -
· Area chart emphasizes the magnitude of change over time.
· By displaying sum of the plotted values on area-chart also shows the relationship of parts to a whole.
Bubble – Chart: -
· A Bubble Chart is a type of XY-chart.
· The size of data marker indicates the value of the third variable.
· To arrange your data, place the ‘x’ value in one row or colon and enter corresponding ‘y’ value and bubble size in adjacent rows/colons.
Radar – Chart: -
· In a radar – chart, each category has its own value axis radiating from the center point.
· Lines connect all the values in same series.
Daughunt – Chart: -
· This chart like a pie chart A doughunt chart shows the relationship of chords to whole. But it can contain more than one data series.
· Each ring of this chart represents a data series.
Cone, Cylinder, & Pyramid Chart: -
· These charts works the data in their shapes, which effects to 3D-colon and bar charts.
Write about filtering features in Excel?
· Sometimes it is useful show only those database records that meant certain criteria (cond).
· This is accomplished by filtering the data base.
Ex: - Suppose you have a mailing list of name & address for clients all over India and you want to send letters only to some.
· We can filter the data so that only the records those you want to send to process.
Auto – Filters: -
· An Auto – Filter is a simple filter, which, with one command, allows you to filter the records in a work-sheet database.
All: - Displays all rows
Top 10: - Displays all rows that fall with in upper or lower limits you specify either by item or percentage.
Custom: - Apply two criteria values with in the current colon or use comparison operators other than “and” (default).
Blank: - Displays only rows that contain a blank cell in the column.
Non – Blanks: - Displays only rows that contain a value in the column.
Advanced Filter: -
· Advanced Filters are use to handle complex criteria.
Custom Filters: -
· The user may want to specify more complex filters. This can b done by selecting the custom option from drop-down list.
· These filters can specify comparison operators.
i.e. <, >, = =, <=, >=, à
Wild Card Characters: -
· Using wild card characters. We can find text or no’s that have some characters or digits in common.
· A wild card characters represents one or more unspecified characters.
MS – ACCESS
Data: - Data is defined as collection of row material, which includes facts, figures and other information.
Information: - Information is a data that is used to process, which increases the knowledge of the person.
Database: - Data – base is a collection of related data. It must be in the form of object
A database is a collection of related records or data stored in different objects such as tables, forms, queries etc.
DBMS: - DBMS is a software, which controls all the operations that are performed on a data-base. It manages various operations on a database like insertions, deletions, modifications etc.
RDBMS: - In RDBMS, we can maintain relationship between two or more database. In this DBMS the database will be represented by using two-d table.
Ms-Access is a RDBMS.
An Access database is a collection of various objects. The following are the various data base objets provide in access.
Software: - Collection of Programs / documentation (comments) procedure / rules etc.
Hardware: - Physical component which we can touch the comp.
Form: - Physical carrier of the information
Database Objects: -
· An Access database is a collection of various objects
· The following are the various database objects provided in Access.
· A table is a container for raw material or data. When you enter the data in Access the information will be stored in table.
· The table designs organizes the information in the form of rows and columns.
· A query is a question. The user can ast questions about the information stored in Access table.
· The user asks questions using query tools. When Access receives the request, it returns the information that the user requested
· A form is a physical carrier of the information.
· Forms provide the flexible way for viewing adding, editing and deleting the data.
· We can view all the fields in the form where as we can view only some fields in the table.
· We can see one record at a time in the field, but where as in table we can see any no. of records.
Reports are used for viewing printing the information using reports we can customize the view of the data.
· Macros are used to execute common tosky automatically.
· Some data base actions are to be perform repeatedly.
· In this case these actions can be store as a macro and can be executed as per the requirements.
· This saves the time and speed up the execution.
· Modules are programming blocks.
· These are used to perform the data base operations programmatically.
· The user can add, edit , delete the data in a table through these modules.
Explain how to create a database in Access?
There are two ways to create a database in Access.
1. Blank database
2. Data-base wizard
Blank database: -
· Select File à New database, then new dialog box will be opened.
· Click on general tab and double click on blank data base icon.
· Then File new database dialog box will be opened.
· Type the file name in the file name box and click on create button.
· The blank database appears.
Data – Base Wizard: -
· Select “data-base wizard” in the start up dialog box and click on “OK” button.
· Ion the new dialog box click on “database” tab.
· Select the one of the data-base from the available data-bases and click “OK” button.
· Then “File new data-base” dialog box will be opened.
· Type the file name in the file name box and click on create button.
· In the next dialog box click “next” and select the necessary fields to be included in the table.
· Click on “check” box, if you want to include sample data and click “Next” button.
· And finally click on “Finish” button.
Explain different techniques to create a “Table” in Access?
These are five ways to create a table in Access.
Data Sheet View: -
· In the database window select tables object and click New button.
· In the “New table” dialog box select “data sheet view” and click ‘OK’.
· Then the blank data sheet is displayed
· The default column names are field, fields and so on.
· Rename the column name by double clicking column headings.
· You can also insert additional columns by selecting Insert à column Options.
· Enter your data in the data sheet.
· Any columns you leave empty will be deleted when you save the data sheet.
· Save the data-sheet.
· Ms-Access asks you to create “Primary Key” to identify the unique record.
· You can specify field as your primary key.
Design – View: -
· In the database window select table object and click “New” button.
· In the “New table” dialog box select “design View” and click OK.
· In the design view dialog box field description should be specified.
· After specifying all fields click on Close button.
· Specify the name for the table.
· Access also asks the conformation of the primary key.
· Specify the field for the primary key.
Table – Wizard: -
· In the database wind. Select tables object and click “New button”.
· In the New table dialog box select table wizard and clock OK.
· Then it displays a Table wizard dialog box. In this dialog box it displays sample tables, sample fields in each table.
· Select the sample table and that fields.
· We can also select the fields from the available fields of the table
· We can rename a field by selecting “rename” option.
· After selecting the fields click “Next”, then you will be ask the name for the table.
· Access also asks the conformation of the Primary Key. If you click ‘Yes’ the primary key will be set automatically.
· In the final step, specify where you want to enter the data to the table or to modify the table design.
· After specifying the choice click finish.
Import Table: -
· This wizard imports tables and objects from an ext. file into the current database.
Link Table: -
· This wizard creates tables in the current database that are linked to tables in an ext. file.
Briefly explain different types create a table in Access?
There are five types to create a table in Access.
Data – Sheet: -
· This view creates a new table in datasheet view.
· In the data-sheet we can enter the data directly.
· By default column headings are field1, field2, … by double clicking field – name we can rename the field name.
Design – View: -
· This view creates a new table in the design view.
· In the design view we can define each of the fields in your table, i.e., field type such as no, text, currency. ….
Table – Wizard: -
· This wizard creates a new table to store the data.
· To create a table through wizard select the tables object in the data base window and click new and follow the dires. in the table wizard dialog boxes.
· By double clicking the table wizard.
Import Table: -
This wizard imports tables and objects from an ext. file into the current database.
Link Table: -
This wizard creates tables in the current data base that are linked to tables in an ext. file.
· A query is nothing but question. A query is use to view selected fields and records from one or more tables.
· After creating a query we can save the query to open it later or we can use it for creating form or report.
· These are mainly five types of queries.
1) Design View: -
· In the data base wind. Click “Queries” tab and click ‘New’ option.
· In the “New Query” dialog box select “design view” option and click “OK”.
· In the “Show Table” dialog box select the “table name” for which you want to create a query.
· And click “add” and then close.
· Now you will see the “Query builder window” in which we have to design the query.
· The “Query builder wind” is having two parts.
· The bottom one is called query grid.
· Drag the fields into various columns of the query grid, which we want of the query grid, which we want to display from the table.
· To select all the fields, select “Star” (*) option.
· Enter the cond. for selecting records.
· To enter the cond. place the cursor at the criteria row of query grid and specify the necessary condition.
· Specify the “Sort” option to display the records in (ascending/descending) order.
· Once you have completed your query click on “Run” (!) button on the toolbar.
· Then the records will be displayed as per specified criteria.
2) Simple Query Wizard: -
· In the database wind click “Queries” tab and click “New” option.
· In the “New Query” dialog box select “Simple Query Wizard” option and click “OK”.
· Select the required table from the drop down list and then select the necessary fields from that table and click “Next” button.
· Give the name for the query and click “Finish” button.
3) Cross – Tab Query: -
S.No. Name Class
1 Srikanth MCA
2. Kalavathi MBA
3. Jyothi Ph.D.
4. Sarvesh M.Sc.(Comp)
5. Prasad M.Phil
6. Jyothi MBBS
7. Kalavathi M.S
8. Srikanth MPCs
Name Total of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Jyothi 2 1 1
Kalavathi 2 1 1
Prasad 1 1
Srikanth 2 1 1
Sarvesh 1 1
· In the data base wind select queries tab and click “New” option.
· In the “New Query” dialog box select “Cross-tab Query” option and click OK.
· Then cross-tab query wizard will be displayed.
· In the select the table and click “Next”.
· In the next step select the fields for the row heading. We can select upto three fields.
· In the next step access asks column heading. Specify the field name for column headings.
· In the next step specify the summary information. I.e., calculation information such as sum, avg, max, min, count etc.
· Finally specify the name of the query and click “Finish”.
A cross-tab query is used to summaries the data in the table or query after grouping in the by two or more fields and presents the results in a tabular fashion called a “Cross-tab”.
A cross-tab shows the values from upto three fields in a table or query in its first column called row headings for the cross-tab. The column headings are taken from the values in the another field in the table.
4) Find duplicate Query wizard: -
· This wizard creates a query that finds records with duplicate field values in a single table or query.
5) Find Unmatched query Wizard: -
· This wizard creates a query that finds records (rows) in one table that have no related records in another record.
5) Forms: -
· A form is a physical carrier of he data.
· Form provide the most flexible way for viewing, adding, editing and deleting your data.
· These are views to create an easier interface for the data entry. These are mainly three types of forms.
i) Form – Wizard: -
· In the database wind. Click on forms object and click on new option.
· Select the form wizard from the new form dialog box.
· In the next dialog box select the necessary fields and click next button
· Select the layout of the form (tabular, columnar, data-sheet) and click Next button.
· In the next dialog box select the Style from the available styles & click next button
· Specify the title of the form and click finish.
ii) Auto – Forms: -
· Auto forms provide the quickest way to create a form for a table or query. There are 3 types of auto forms
a) Columnar: -
· In the database wind click forms object and click new button
· Select columnar from new form dialog box and select name of the table forms from the drop down list and click OK button.
· A columnar auto form will be created automatically.
b) Tabular: -
· In the database wind click forms object and click “New” button
· Select tabular from new form dialog box and select name of the table forms from the drop down list and click OK button
· A tabular auto form will be created automatically.
c) Data Sheet: -
· In the data base wind click forms object and click New button.
· Select data sheet from the new form dialog box and select name of the table forms from the drop down list and click OK button
· A data-sheet form will be created automatically.
iii) Design – View: -
· In the database wind. Click forms object and click New button
· In the new form dialog box select design view and select tables from the list of tables and click OK.
· In the design view of the form there are three areas namely header, footer and detail.
· The header area is use to display the titles and other information.
· The footer area is used to display comments and page no’s.
· The detail block is used to display the actual data.
· Select field – list from the view menu then it displays all the fields in the selected table in a small wind.
· Drag the required fields into the detail block of the form.
· We can also format the fields using the various formatting features of access.
· Finally save the form.
6) Reports: -
· Reports present data in printed format
· These are similar to forms but un like forms, they would not provide entering editing information of a table
· These are three types of reports we can create
i) Auto Report: -
· This feature provides quickest way to create a report for a table or query.
· There are two types of auto reports.
a) Columnar Auto Report: -
· Click the reports object in the data base wind and click new option.
· In the new report dialog box select columnar auto report and specify the table from the drop down list for a report.
· The columnar auto report will be created automatically.
b) Tabular Auto Report: -
· Click the reports object in the database wind and click new button
· In the new report dialog box select tabular auto report and specify the table from the drop down list for a report.
· The tabular auto report will be created automatically.
ii) Report Wizard: -
· In the data base wind, select reports object and click new option.
· In the new report dialog box select report wizard option and click OK.
· Select the table for the report from the drop down list in the report wizard.
· We can also specify for selecting some fields in a table.
· In the next step specify the grouping option. I.e., fields based on which you want to group the records.
· In the next step specify the field name to display the records in order.
· Select the layout of the report and click next.
· Select the style for the report and click next.
· Finally specify the title for the report and click finish.
iii) Design View: -
· In the database wind select reports object and click new option.
· In the new report dialog box select design view and select table for the report.
· The design view contains three blocks similar to the design view of the form
· Select toolbars option from the view menu in which various form designs tools are available.
· Use the label control for field heading.
· Use the text box control for fields values.
· In the property wind select data à control source. In the drop down list select the appropriate field.
· For sorting and grouping the data select sorting and grouping option by right clicking on the design view of the report.
· Specify the field for in the sorting and grouping dialog box
· After specifying the grouping options close the dialog box and save the report.
What is Macro? How do you create a Macro group?
A macro is a set of one or more actions. That each perform a particular operation such as opening a form or printing a report.
Macros can help you to automate common tasks.
Ex: - You can run a macro that prints a report when a user clicks a command button.
· Macro group is a collection of related macros that are stored together under a single macro name.
· The collection is often referred as macro
· A macro can be one macro composed of sequence of actions or it can be a macro group.
· The macro window contains two panes.
Action Pane: -
· Each macro can have one or many action.
· You can add descriptions of each action in the comment column.
· Access ignores the comments when the macro is run.
Argument Pane: -
· The lower portion of the wind is called Argument Pane.
· Here we are specify arguments for the selection options such as open form, opens specific form and six different arguments like form name, view, printer name, data mode, window mode etc.
· In the data base wind select macros tab and select new button.
· Access opens macro design view wind.
· Select view à macro names, then access adds the macro name column to the action pane.
· In the macro name box, enter the name for the macro.
· Select the action column under the action you just entered.
· Enter the next action in the action column continue like this all actions are specified from that specific action.
· Finally save Macro.
Explain how to create relationship between tables?
Relation ship allows one table to linked with another table. it is used when same data to be entered in two or more tables. Relationship established at a table level takes precedence over those established at the query level.
There are four types of relationships
1. One to One relationship (Student – University)
2. One to Many relationship (University – Students)
3. Many to one relationship (No. of students – One College)
4. Many to many relationship (Students – Subjects)
To create a relationship between the tables do the following steps.
· Add the tables before entering the relationship builder from the dialog box, i.e., first displayed.
· Click on the Show table button on the toolbar
· Select relationship à show table from the main menu.
· In the relationship wind click the right most button and select the show table from the menu. To start the relationship builder and add tables to the relation wind do the following steps.
· Click on the relationship on the toolbar, access opens a show table dialog box.
· Select all tables in the show table dialog box.
· Click on the close button on the show table dialog box. O.L.E (Object Linking and embedding)
· Object linking means linking means linking two or more objects or two or more applications.
· Embedding means inserting object into the particular slide.
O.L.E: - (OBJECT LINKING AND EMBEDDING)
· When ever you update a source file destination file is automatically this concept is known as O.L.E
· Linking a file to a presentation for example, if you have a file in another location (image or text or other information.
· You can link this file to a power point presentation.
· To link the file to the presentation do the following steps.
· Display the slide on to which you want to place the object.
· Choose insert à object
· Insert object dialog box opens. Click on create form file option in the dialog box.
· Select the link check box this is important because this makes the difference between linking and embedding.
· Select the desired file for linking by clicking browse button or type the file name with path.
· Finally click on OK.
Embedding an object in a Presentation: -
· This procedure is same as above but the only difference.
· Click on create new. Here no need to select the link check box.
Q. How do you create customized form letters?
· Create a table that consists of customers addreses.
· In the next step, in the database window click in reports and click New button.
· In the New Report dialog box select design view and select the table from the dropdown list and click OK button.
· A Report form is opened and contains Page header, Details and Page footer.
· View àToolbars àTool Box.
· In the Page header create a lable for the letter bu clicking “Lable” button on toolbox.
· Select a “Text box” from the toolbox and place in the Detail area and set the date entering “= date( )” in the unbounded text box (Select the long date from properties).
· Drag the customer address fields and place it in the Detail area.
· Select the text box and type “enter the salutation”, then it will asks the salutation type.
· Select the label button and type the letter information
· Save the report and close the Design view.
· Then finally select the report name and click on Preview button, then letter will be created.
Q. Creation of reports with Totals.
· Create a table consisting fields
Ex: - Sno, Date, sales
· In the database window select reports & click new button
· In the “new report” dialog box select design view and select the table from the drop down list and click OK button.
· The new report form will be displayed.
· Select view à view list and drag the fields into “Detail” area
SNO. Date Sales
· For calculating the total, select the field on which you want to calculate and right click the mouse and select properties.
· Then dialog box will be displayed in that click on Data button and click on Running sum column.
· Select the “over group” or “over all” option from the drop down list and close the window
· Save the report.
· To see the output, in the database window select Reports and click on Preview button.
Explain the Excel Functions: -
1) Asb (Number)
Ex: - = abs (-5) ¿
2) Exp (number)
Ex: - = exp (1) ¿
3) Fact (number)
Ex: - = fact (4) ¿
4) Int (number)
Ex: - = int (4.5687) ¿
5) Log (number, base)
Ex: - = log (4, 4) ¿
6) Product (num1, num2 . . . )
Ex: - = Product (8, 2) ¿
7) Round (number, no. of digits)
Ex: - = round (5.68762) ¿
8) Sqrt (number)
Ex: - = sqrt (9) ¿
9) Sum (num1, num2 ….)
Ex: - Sum (5, 6, 7) ¿
Statistical Functions: -
1) Average (n1, n2, n3 ….)
Ex: - = Average (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) ¿
2) Count (n1, n2, n3, …)
Ex: - = Count (1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9) ¿
3) Max (n1, n2 …..)
Ex: - = Max (1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9) ¿
4) Min (n1, n2…..)
Ex: - = Min (1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9) ¿
Logical Functions: -
1) And (criteria, criteria …..)
Ex: - = And (3>5, 5>4) ¿
2) Or (criteria, criteria …..)
Ex: - = OR (3 >5, 5<4) ¿
Tent Functions: -
1) Concatenate (tent1, tent2 …..)
Ex: - = Concatenate (“New”, computer) ¿
2) Exact (tent 1, tent 2)
Ex: - = exact (“New”, “Computer”) ¿
3) Len (tent)
Ex: - = Len (New) ¿
4) Left (tent, n)
Ex: - = Left (“Computer” 4) ¿
5) Right (tent n)
Ex: - = Right (“Computer”, 5) ¿
6) Replace (Old – tent, start, no of chars, New text)
Ex: - = (“Old computer”, 1, 3, “New”) ¿
7) Trim (tent)
Ex: - = Trim (“Computer”) ¿
8) Mid (Tent, start, no of chars)
Ex: - = mid (“Computs”, 3, 4) ¿